Still, it is extremely important to capture the public’s perceptions about the performance of the police through surveys and track it over time periods. These performance measures can be used on their own in some cases, or they can be combined with other direct measures, such as crime and clearance rates . The performance of the police in the dimension of reducing crime and victimization has been historically measured through police-reported crimes that are compiled into the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey in Canada. It has basic information on the type of offence committed, the characteristics of the offender , the damage, and the victim. Higher rates of reporting crimes to police could potentially mean that victims possess higher levels of confidence in the police.

Canadians living in Quebec (+3.8%) and Ontario (+3.5%) also experienced price growth above the national average. Conversely, price growth in the western provinces lagged behind the national average, with Saskatchewan (+2.6%) recording the lowest inflation rate. Trust carries an important function of decreasing complexity in a society in that by placing trust in individuals or institutions, people’s decision-making processes and the ensuing actions become much simpler .

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For example, consider the general questions that are being asked on the overall satisfaction with police in seven Canadian cities, one provincial police service, and the RCMP.Footnote 9 These questions are measuring the same concept of general satisfaction with police. They all feature a word “satisfaction” or, in some rare cases, “confidence” in the question, but the wording is different for all of them. The wording of the categorization of responses and their scale are different as well, ranging from three to five response categories.

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Surveys with those who have had contact with the police and asking them questions on their experiences is an important tool to understand whether police have been courteous and fair. These measures could further enrich the knowledge about the dimension of the use of authority and force. It is important to ensure, however, that questions are designed to find out about citizens’ experiences during the encounter with the police and not to provide a venue for public complaints against the police. Coleman’s work is instrumental in helping police leaders set up and improve the existing police performance frameworks in Canada and around the world. It was not Coleman’s intent to construct actual survey questions on police performance.

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Although not widely practiced in academic research, probably due to ethical concerns and costs, the technique provides an objective alternative to other popular methods. Direct observations of social behavior or certain phenomenon is a research method that is used widely in criminology. For example, social disorder was observed by researchers in Chicago, where occurrences of the phenomenon were recorded on camera, coded, and analyzed .

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Trans and gender diverse authors who wish to request a change to a previous publication are particularly encouraged to contact the editors. Authors will not be asked to provide official or legal documentation of the name change, and all requests will be kept confidential by the editors. College & Research Libraries is a refereed journal using double-anonymous reviewing. The editor peruses manuscripts and may reject papers that are clearly outside of the scope of the journal. For this process, the cover sheet with authors’ names and other identifying materials is blocked out or deleted.

Such information could then be compared against the police service’s policies on use of force, operational data, or public complaints against the police. Nevertheless, it is evident that measuring police performance using the traditional measures alone is not sufficient. To measure the police’s ability to arrest criminals only would be to completely disregard the other important work done by the police. The multi-dimensional nature of police’s work requires a multi-dimensional approach to the measurement of their performance.

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According to Neely et al , performance measurement may be defined as the process of quantifying the efficiency or effectiveness of an action, while a performance measure is the metric used in the quantification process. An assessment of the local gang problem is a critical first step for planning strategies, programs and activities. Failure to adequately assess the nature, characteristics and size of the issue may lead to not focusing on the right youth, not choosing the appropriate initiatives, and not employing the proper level of resources. Timelines and responsiveness – initiatives should be swift and respond to the needs of at-risk and gang-involved youth who are dealing with competing social pressures, demands and influences. Multi-stakeholder involvement, coordination and collaboration – multiple individuals and organizations working together can increase resource and professional expertise, and ensure both specialized support for specific needs and development of the youth.

These two notions are undoubtedly interconnected, yet they are somewhat distinct. The notion of “favourableness” may be tied to persons’ subjective beliefs with regards to the police, which could include a broad scope of attributes of the police such as their intentions and efforts. On the other hand, the notion of “confidence” might be steering persons responding to the question towards assessing the more objective actual police actions.

Aboriginal YouthFootnote7

9 restrictions received special treatments, effectively removing their impact on the calculation of the monthly and annual average CPI. This release examines the percentage change between the annual average Consumer Price Index in 2020 and 2021. Labour shortages, production challenges, and higher input and transportation costs, coupled with strong demand for meat in North America, contributed to the price increase in 2021.

  • The journal aims to be a bridge of communication among archivists, and between archivists and users of archives.
  • Bell and Miller have drawn attention to the relationship between exposure to violence and victimization as factors that enhance the appeal of gangs.
  • This publication also highlights information on specific risk factors, pathways to involvement and desistance, and guidance on prevention and intervention efforts for these groups.
  • The lifelong impact of brain and mental health disorders that result from prolonged childhood trauma, and of the accompanying developmental impairments and emotional vulnerability.
  • Considering True Crime through academic and popular perspectives with reviews, interviews and more.
  • The author or authors agree that they have pursued any reviews or approvals necessitated by their Institutional Review Board and that this submission is compliant with those standards.

There may also be a discrepancy between the longing of youth to belong, and the difficult realities of their social isolation and exclusion. Youth may express a need to belong to supportive social networks, yet they may not feel strong connections with others at home, school or in the community . Gangs typically form in communities where an accumulation of different forms of disadvantage (e.g., economic disadvantage, lack of opportunities, family disruption, racial discrimination) come together. Both the emergence and sustainability of gangs and gang membership rely on the extent to which these disadvantages are more prevalent in communities (Pyrooz, Fox, & Decker, 2010). These groups experience what Vigil called ‘multiple marginality’, where breakdowns of social and economic factors lead to a ‘street socialization’ takeover. Multiple marginality acts and reacts within populations to drive youth into the streets and immigration or migration adaption is a central part of this process.

Among the eight major components, transportation prices (+7.2%) rose at the fastest pace. Clothing and footwear prices decreased 0.3% in 2021, the lone major component to fall over the past year. Excluding energy, the annual average CPI grew 2.4% in 2021, a faster pace than in 2020 (+1.3%) and a slightly faster pace than in 2019 (+2.3%). Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication, with the work simultaneously licensed under aCreative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.

It is only in the last two decades that researchers have begun looking into more specific police performance measures through public opinion surveys. However, groundwork on the meaning of the questions, whether they measure what they are supposed to measure, and how well they measure it, is largely absent from the literature. At the individual level, the families of immigrant youth are often vulnerable in various ways prior to immigrating to Canada, or youth are impacted by their parents’ histories prior to immigration. This vulnerability often comes from poverty, extreme violence, and brutality in their home countries. Once in Canada, the vulnerability of individual youth may be further aggravated by mental health issues and psychological damage resulting from instances of discrimination and victimization . At the school level, lack of engagement has been identified as a risk factor for gang involvement , and there may be multiple underlying issues.

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In general, empirical work examining the impact of motherhood is mixed, leaving questions about its impact on desistance (O’Neal et al., 2016). However, several Canadian studies have found that pregnancy influenced young women’s decisions to get out and stay out of the gang. The latter indicated that they did not want their child to be affected or influenced by the gang’s ‘negative lifestyle’ and that they wanted to make their lives better in order to protect them (Aulakh, 2008; Kelly, 2015; Nimmo, 2001).

If standardized (i.e., asked in the same way with same categories for answers), these measures can be used to compare the overall rating of police across time periods as well as in different communities . A lower assessment of police in a community could further increase the chances of public complaints and lawsuits against the police, lack of cooperation or, in some extreme cases, a rebellion against the police, and negative reflections in the media . Lastly, past research has shown that a decrease in the perceived legitimacy of the police could potentially lead to non-compliance with the authority of the police and increased crime rates (LaFree, 1998; Tyler, 1990). Similar to the measurement of fear of crime and sense of personal security, police performance in ensuring citizens’ level of comfort and sense of security in a public space needs to be properly measured. A rate of crime that occurs in public spaces and clearance rates of such crimes are possible direct measures of this dimension.

These metrics can only be measured through questions asked on public opinion surveys, such as the ones assessing the levels of people’s general confidence or trust in the police or specific issues that people trust the police to address. While questions on the overall assessment of police provide some value to measuring police performance, their major shortfall is that they are too general to tease out specific information on what it is that citizens favour about the police services. More importantly, it is impossible to tease out that about which citizens are unhappy. city index review When prompted about their overall satisfaction with the police, the respondents, in their mind, may be referring to police courtesy, effectiveness with battling crime, use of force, or any aspect of police work (Gallagher et al, 2001; Jackson and Bradford, 2010a). Respondents may further be referring to issues that may only indirectly relate to police efforts, such as social disorder in their neighbourhoods or their general fear of crime. Evidently, none of these aspects could be captured by the general question on the level of satisfaction with police.

If someone, for example, has trust that the police ensure safety in public places, it would make it easier to take a stroll at night. An individual’s decision to trust something or someone is based on both past experience in a similar situation and perceived dangers of accepting the situation . In other words, knowing their experiences from the past, trust allows individuals to act in a manner in which perceived dangers are precluded from occurring . The emerging debate on how to best achieve long-term, sustainable levels of policing has included a discussion of targeting and refining the application of policing resources to ensure police service delivery is both efficient and effective.

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Annual average dairy product prices rose 2.8% in 2021, after increasing 2.5% in 2020. Prices for butter rose at the fastest pace in Quebec (+7.4%) and New Brunswick (+7.4%), while they increased at the slowest pace in Manitoba (+3.7%). Consumers of natural gas in Canada paid on average 16.1% more than they did a year earlier, as limited supply led to higher prices. Natural gas prices rose 26.5% in Manitoba and 23.9% in Alberta compared with a year earlier. Annual average prices rose at the fastest pace in Prince Edward Island (+5.1%), followed by Nova Scotia (+4.1%).